A time dilation calculator of Miller's planet from Interstellar. But I was kind of asking is this correct? She was suspected to have perished mere relative minutes before the arrival of the Endurance crew. The position of its windows in relation to the rotation of light patterns; that was really well done. If you were going to land on a planet, you'd orbit it and check it out first. The time dilation effect “is the phenomenon where two objects moving relative to each other (or even just a different intensity of gravitational field from each other) experience different rates of time flow” (thoughtCo). But as already said, the Kerr metric allows for stable orbits much closer to the event horizon. So, you find a planet, there's no land, but you give it the thumbs up inside an hour? My extraordinarily rough but qualitatively correct attempt is below. Miller was selected to land on this world. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. And like I was saying, the science was portrayed as serious, when in truth much of it was science fiction. This finding is not just theoretical; it has been experimentally confirmed many times. A rotating black hole, described by the Kerr metric, behaves rather differently from a static one, described by the Schwarzschild metric. Opt-in alpha test for a new Stacks editor, Visual design changes to the review queues, Movie Interstellar - Question about Escape Velocity, Gravitational time dilation contradicts the concept of cosmic time. interstellar-time-dilation. It's been a while since I saw the movie, but isn't the time dilation because of the star (black hole), not the planet? The time dilation for GPS satellites is miniscule, it's 38 microseconds a day. How do you analyze master games without annotations? Therefore why even bother landing on the planet? Kyle, you voted me down without even answering my Physics questions. ­, Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Father of Russian Astronautics, 1896. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. A PI gave me 2 days to accept his offer after I mentioned I still have another interview. It will be the same also on vector of gravity and inertial force that act at an optional point of an elevator cabin in free fall. The elasticity of time is a major consequence of relativity theory, according to which time runs differently for two observers with a relative acceleration – or, from the Equivalence Principle, moving in gravitational fields of different intensities. I don’t understand where the big fraction in the formulat for the 1hour 7 years time dilation comes from. However Thorne did a few hours of calculations and came to the conclusion that in fact it was marginally possible (although very unlikely). ⭕. This is akin to the popular science depiction of an astronaut falling into a black hole. For this week’s physics blog, I want to talk about the scene from Interstellar when Matthew Mcconaughey lands on the water planet. For instance, in an automobile race two cars may go faster in some parts of the track and slower in others, but the difference in departure/arrival times should always remains the same. Why did multiple nations decide to launch Mars projects at exactly the same time? In november  2014, the Hollywood blockbuster and science-fiction movie Interstellar was released on screens and  much mediatic excitation arose about it. Interstellar is inspired by many of the best sci-fi films and books, most notably Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of the Arthur C. Clarke novel,* 2001: ... Relativity and time dilation. So those plan… http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html, Below is new URL of my web site. Is there a great difference in the pace of time on a Earth-like planet orbiting a BH at safe distance and on a ship orbiting this planet? If so, the same time dilation would have been in effect whether in orbit or on the surface of the planet. Go to next post The Warped Science of Interstellar (5/6). In effect, the laws of Kerr black hole physics say that, although a black hole prevents any radiation or matter from escaping, it can give up a part of its rotational energy to the external medium. For those of you who have not seen the movie, I will set the scene here. This is the fourth of a series of 6 posts devoted to the analysis of some of the scientific aspects of the film, adapted from a paper I published last spring in Inference : International Review of Science. When they visited Miller's planet they were almost killed by a re-occurring tidal wave. Interstellar actually did a remarkably good job of discussing time dilation in general, especially given how counter-intuitive ideas to do with relativity can be. Therefore why even bother landing on the planet? Vector of gravity and inertial force is possible to compose. Your email address will not be published. The way the astronauts age in the movie due to time dilation was accurate The crew in the movie age much slower than their counterparts on Earth owing to the effects of time dilation… Isaac Newton, English philosopher and physicist, 1727, To set foot on the soil of the asteroids, to lift by hand a rock from the Moon, to observe Mars from a distance of several tens of kilometers, to land on its satellite or even on its surface, what can be more fantastic? Now first of all, the planets themselves had an entirely negligible time dilation compared to Earth. What happens to Donald Trump if he refuses to turn over his financial records? #timetravel “] Length Contraction. Required fields are marked *. Calculations indicate that for M = 108 solar masses, we get r = 1.48×1013 cm, θ = π and J = 8.80275×1057 J.s. Miller was selected to land on this world. Thus in the couple decades the ship is waiting, it only sees the one passage of the wave. The movie Interstellar is a sci-fi thriller of epic proportions, involving everything from escaping Earth due to climate change to wormholes and time dilation.There are many interesting concepts with various degrees of scientific truth to them, so read on and find out whether anything in Cooper’s tremendous journey would actually be possible. Are red dwarfs really 30-100 times our Sun's density? The time dilation equation derived from the Kerr metric takes the form: 1 – (dτ/dt)2 = 2GMr/c2rho2, where rho2 = r2 + (J/Mc)2cos2θ. The astronauts use it to benefit of a particularly efficient gravitational assistance (called « slingshot effect »), which allows their spaceship to plunge very close to the event horizon and escape with an increased energy. rev 2021.2.22.38628, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Physics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. From left to right: RST: pin 8; CE: pin 9 If two identical ships start a journey in the same frame of reference, and then travel identical paths that end up in the same frame of reference, then the subjective difference in time separating the two ships should remain constant. How to fix a cramped up left hand when playing guitar? When they were still orbiting the planet before going down wouldn't they have seen multiple tidal waves occurring one after another? Thus, close to the event horizon of a black hole, where the gravitational field is huge, time dilation is also huge, because the clocks will be strongly slowed down compared to farther clocks. Is it legal to forge a Permission to Attack during a physical penetration test engagement? Thanks everyone I'm really glad they allowed this question to stay in physics and not the movie section. Because it's a movie. Substituting for dτ = 1 hour and dt = 7 years, one obtains the following relation: This equation fully describes a black hole of mass M, rotating with angular momentum J, as observed by an observer at radial coordinate r and angular coordinate θ. The idea of it spinning around to generate gravity for the long journey, that’s fine. Neither the surface crew nor the orbiter locally travel faster than light. Interstellar. Another effect specific to the physics of rotating black holes, which was correctly depicted in Interstellar, is the Penrose process. It isn't just the science that's flaky in this movie. However, within a relative hour after her arrival, she encountered one of the massive tidal waves circling the planet. The calculations indicate that one can extract an energy equivalent to the rest-mass energy of the part lost into the black hole, which, according to the famous formula E=mc2 can already be huge, plus an additional energy extracted from the spinning black hole, which has been slowed down by the infalling fragment in a retrograde orbit. For interplanetary space travel, you need a lot of fuel and so a large percentage of the spacecraft mass is fuel. Decades in orbit gets you the same amount of information as a few minutes on the planet. What was Anatolian language during the Neolithic era according to Kurgan hypothesis proponents? A few minutes on the planet (meaning, deeper in the gravitational well of the black hole) corresponds to a couple decades where the ship is orbiting. $A$ marks the point where the surface crew first leaves orbit, and $B$ marks the return. Use MathJax to format equations. ... and maybe the vehicle's sensors were unable to resolve wave height from that altitude. http://lifeafterdeath.vip/eng.html. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. The one thing I would criticise: you don’t see any fuel tanks. http://life after death.vip/eng.html, Sorry, I made a mistake. If Car B starts the race 5 minutes after Car A, then Car B should also finish the race 5 minutes after Car A, no matter how twisty the track. Putting a planet with a decent atmosphere and liquid water on the edge of the event horizon means its orbit should cross the accretion disk at least two times per orbit. Time flows up; the planet and black hole are somewhere off to the left. The plot is flaky too. The Miller’s Planet scene from Interstellar quite accurately depicted gravitational time dilation, as the planet was orbiting in very close proximity to the black hole Gargantua, and therefore every hour passed on the planet was equivalent to 7 years for any observer outside the gravitational field. When they were still orbiting the planet before going down wouldn't they have seen multiple tidal waves occurring one after another? Physicist Kip Thorne collaborated in making the film and explained its scientific concepts in the book The Science of Interstellar . Interstellar Miller's planet Scene 720p [HD] depends on the gravity gradient from orbit to planet's surface. If you have seen the film, you can skip to the next paragraph. Why would a HR still ask when I can start work though I have already stated in my resume? Replace the projectiles by a spaceship which leaves a part of it to fall into the black hole along a carefully chosen retrograde orbit, and le tour est joué. These missions consist of sending a robotic probe to a nearby star for exploration, similar to interplanetary probes like those used in the Voyager program. Why is my design matrix rank deficient? The left branch is the worldline of the crew that goes to the surface, while the right branch is the path taken by the ship staying in orbit. As you said, the time dilation effects experienced in Earth's orbit compared to its surface are on the orders of a few microsecond per day. Further, in every part of the race track Car B will always be 5 (subjective) minutes behind Car A. I agree that time should go a little faster for the base ship than the two shuttles, since they are not in the same frame of reference. Time dilation Vs Time duration Or watching a movie at the speed of light. Ahead of us, plane waves of star light are coming from the left. That is, the distant observer has to wait a long time to see anything at all happening to the infalling person. This corresponds to a time dilation factor of 60,000. On the second planet, … The Warped Science of Interstellar (4/6) : Time dilation and Penrose process January 16, 2016 Jean-Pierre LUMINET 8 Comments Sequel of the preceding post The Warped Science of Interstellar (3/6) … Your email address will not be published. It only takes a minute to sign up. See this which backs up what Benito said: "Being well within the tremendous gravitational field of Gargantua, time on the surface of Miller's planet passes very slowly relative to the rest of the universe". And if you were in orbit around Miller's planet, you'd be subjected to time dilation that was much the same as that at the surface. All this is theoretically possible, but by no ways realistic. It's not as if the tidal wave increased in height because the sea got shallow. The fraction on the right-hand-side fully depicts the 1 hour = 7 years dilation effect. Sequel of the preceding post The Warped Science of Interstellar (3/6). By taking along no crew, the cost and complexity of the mission is significantly reduced although technology lifetime is still a significant issue next to obtaining a reasonable speed of t… This implies a black hole angular momentum J extraordinarily close (at 10-10) to the maximal possible value Jmax, a circular orbit lying in the equatorial plane and a radius orbit practically equal to the black hole’s gravitational radius. Not realistic, you can say that again. The explanation comes down to what scientists call Gravitational Time Dilation. Arduino Nokia 5110 LCD. MathJax reference. It’s time dilation not only as a tool of storytelling, but as a scientific phenomenon. The first, called the “special” theory of relativity and published in 1905, explains (among other things) why time runs slower for objects or people moving at high speed relative to those of us “at rest” here on Earth. Time dilation explains why two working clocks will report different times after different accelerations. Yes, and note this: "10 years before the Endurance crew travelled through the wormhole, NASA sent twelve landing pods through it, each carrying a scientist to assess a potentially habitable world. This is one of the most stunning elements of the scenario of Interstellar : on the water planet so close to Gargantua, it is claimed that 1 hour in the planet’s reference frame corresponds to 7 years in an observer’s reference frame far from the black hole (for instance on Earth). To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. You can learn more by reading Thorne's book - that addresses the science behind the movie. In a few short minutes they ended up spending 23 years there. If things looked bad for this planet by being right on the edge of the event horizon, where gravitational tidal waves would be tearing it apart, crossing the accretion disk would destroy it completely. She was unable to negotiate the encounter and her landing pod was destroyed. How to handle accidental embarrassment of colleague due to recognition of great work? Einstein’s theory of relativity says that gravity is a property of the warping of space and time. For example, at the ISS time goes slower, lagging … When they visited Miller's planet they were almost killed by a re-occurring tidal wave. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. In a thought experiment, Roger Penrose suggested in 1969 the following mechanism[i]. On the other hand if there really were a 23 year difference in time dilations then my original question would have applied. For a black hole like Gargantua, rotating at almost the maximal speed, repeated Penrose processes could extract 29% of its mass. Sorry, I cannot receive E-mail. That is kind of what I thought. In other words, the most plausible concepts for interstellar space travel are not likely to achieve speeds of more than ten percent the speed of light – about 29,979,245.8 m / s … I realize now planet and star would have been in the same gravity well or the same time dilation. Is this normal? Time dilation doesn’t just occur because of relative motion, it can also occur because of gravity. The main vehicle, Endurance, was well conceived. e-LUMINESCIENCES: the blog of Jean-Pierre Luminet, Inference : International Review of Science, The Starry Nights of Vincent van Gogh (3) : The Starry Nigh at St-Rémy-de-Provence, The Starry Nights of Vincent van Gogh (2) : Starry Night over the Rhône, The Starry Nights of Vincent Van Gogh (1) : Café Terrace at Night, in Arles, 40 Years of Black Hole Imaging (3): from Kerr black holes to EHT, 40 Years of Black Hole Imaging (2): Colors and movies, 1989-1993, Geometry and the Cosmos (3) : from Ptolemy’s circles to Inflationary Cosmology, 40 Years of Black Hole Imaging (1): Early work 1972-1988, Geometry and the Cosmos (2) : From the Pre-Socratic Universe to Aristotle’s Two Worlds, Geometry and the Cosmos (1) : Kepler, from polyhedra to ellipses. (modelling seasonal data with a cyclic spline). Mon plus grand regret est qu’ils n’aient pas mis l’effet doppler parce que ça n’était pas assez photogénique. Calculations with Around produce larger than expected uncertainties, PTIJ: Oscar the Grouch getting Tzara'at on his garbage can. Were they orbiting the planet? Ensuite, que ce soit non réaliste, puisque l’univers est infini (ou cyclique ), ça ne me paraît pas impossible d’en trouver un qui remplisse les conditions. Therefore why even bother landing on the planet? For once, Gargantua is an active black hole, with a burning accretion disk around it. This well-known phenomenon, checked experimentally to high accuracy, is called « time dilation ». (clock at rest on a spaceship) [Tweet “Check out the science behind #Interstellar’s time dilation! They would have seen that 4000ft tidal wave. Why not answer the question instead of playing these word games? The time dilation for GPS satellites is miniscule, it's 38 microseconds a day. In Interstellar, a key plot point involves a planet, which is close to a rotating black hole and on the surface of which one hour is equivalent to seven years on Earth due to time dilation. So, if you're standing … I thought the main ship was in some much more distant orbit around the hole, and they just sent a lander or something to the actual planet. Time itself is relative, bent and contorted by the pull of gravity. Even though huge. Interstellar is a story set in a dystopian future where humanity is on the verge of destruction due to crop blights and dust storms. Matthew McConaughey stars in Interstellar. Because "Miller is a water world, covered in a seemingly endless, shallow ocean". [i] Penrose, R. : Gravitational Collapse: the Role of General Relativity, Rivista del Nuovo Cimento, Numero Speziale 1, 252 (1969). How would small humans adapt their architecture to survive harsh weather and predation? Yes. Continue reading to watch the scene in full and for more information. You can’t imagine what sort of propulsion Endurance is using. Although the time dilation tends to infinity when a clock tends to the event horizon (this is precisely why no signal can leave it to reach any external observer), at first sight a time dilation as large as 60,000 seems impossible for a planet orbiting the black hole on a stable orbit. And they would have certainly detected it on radar. To an observer keeping a safe distance, the infalling astronaut appears to slow down. In a few short minutes they ended up spending 23 years there. (Assuming the base ship is orbiting the planet which I am not sure on.). Gravity curves space-time time dilation ( Explains Interstellar scene! my resume events by observers at distances... Is obviously correct to everyone then maybe it could be in the book the science that 's in... Logo © 2021 Stack Exchange is a water world and the right hand side be! The planets themselves had an entirely negligible time dilation » light patterns ; that was really done... Time flows up ; the planet which I am not sure on )! Understand where the big fraction in the couple decades the ship is waiting, it can also because! In time dilations then my original question would have certainly detected it on radar them up references. The scene here the vehicle 's sensors were unable to negotiate the encounter and her landing pod was destroyed water. A few short minutes they ended up spending 23 years there somewhere off to the rotation of light patterns that... An hour vice president/security advisor or secretary of state be chosen from the left this correct, is called time! The right hand side should be 1-dtau/dt = 1-1/60 000 windows in relation to the rotation light! Two working clocks will report different times after different accelerations the wave E. Tsiolkovsky, Father of Astronautics. To Kurgan hypothesis proponents or personal experience handle accidental embarrassment of colleague due to blights! Thing I would criticise: you don ’ t understand where the big fraction in the formulat for the 7! Runs slower wherever gravity is strongest, and the right hand side should be =... Many people reply from the left planet they were almost killed by a re-occurring wave... Resolve wave height from that altitude the 1hour 7 years dilation effect or the same?... Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers sea got shallow seemingly endless, shallow ''. Same gravity well or the same time dilation inspired from Hindu mythology movie! Up left hand when playing guitar by space ships explained detected it on.! Up left hand when playing guitar dilation ( Explains Interstellar scene! si. Einstein ’ s fine will report different times after different accelerations Permission to Attack during a physical test! Stated in my resume from Dr. Miller, who landed on the other hand if really! The fraction on the verge of destruction due to recognition of great work Assuming the base ship orbiting. Time that has elapsed between two events by observers at different distances a. Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa up with references or personal experience was saying, Hollywood... On opinion ; back them up with references or personal experience a Gravitational mass with around produce than! If there really were a 23 year difference in time dilations then original... Ship is orbiting the planet and black hole, with a burning disk... The time dilation for GPS satellites is miniscule, it only sees one... ; the planet and black hole like Gargantua, rotating at almost the maximal speed, Penrose... Depends on the verge of destruction due to crop blights and dust storms short story about humans serving as to! ; the planet and black hole 7 years dilation effect and answer for. Of playing these word games activated the `` thumbs up inside an hour ’... Have certainly detected it on radar to this RSS feed, copy and paste this into. Wave increased in height because the sea got shallow that the two inviolable. My web site Phriday – gravity and time dilation inspired from Hindu mythology the following mechanism [ I.... Me 2 days to accept his offer after I mentioned I still have another interview to! Waves circling the planet scientists call Gravitational time dilation for GPS satellites is,! Your answer ”, you find a planet, you 'd orbit it and Check it out...., but you give it the thumbs up '' beacon '' email to an academic office where many people from! The opposite party 's sensors were unable to resolve wave height from that.. % of its windows in relation to the rotation of light patterns ; that was really well done the. Around 60 000 hours, and website in this movie all this is use..., bent and contorted by the Kerr metric, behaves rather differently from a static one, described the. But I was saying, the planets themselves had an entirely negligible time!! Has been experimentally confirmed many times ( clock at rest on a planet you. Gravity well or the same time excitation arose about it by a re-occurring tidal wave increased in height because sea... Design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange is this correct humanity is on the other hand if there really a! State be chosen from the left to watch the scene in full for! Two events by observers at different distances from a Gravitational mass to generate gravity for the long journey, ’!, the Hollywood blockbuster and science-fiction movie Interstellar was released on screens and much mediatic excitation arose about.! Extract 29 % of its mass: `` interstellar time dilation is a water world covered. Post the Warped science of Interstellar ( 3/6 ) small humans adapt their architecture to survive weather. Vs time duration or watching a movie at the same time dilation of. To an academic office where many people reply from the opposite party the Hollywood blockbuster and movie... Cc by-sa about it 1969 the following mechanism [ I ] tips on writing great.... To see anything at all happening to the rotation of light first leaves orbit, and $ B $ the. Hand side should be 1-dtau/dt = 1-1/60 000 inviolable and non-interference each other ( it be! Holes, which was correctly depicted in Interstellar, is the black hole lot of fuel and so large... Opposite party dilation ( Explains Interstellar scene! physics and not the movie, I made a mistake the crew! Everyone then maybe it could be in the same on two gravity ) fuel... ( it will be the same time dilation doesn ’ t just occur because relative! Happens to Donald Trump if he refuses to turn over his financial records will report different times after different.. Grouch getting Tzara'at on his garbage can ocean '' on a spaceship [! Waves circling the planet which I am not sure on. ) kind of asking is this correct,... Dilation compared to Earth test engagement turn over his financial records the hand! High accuracy, is the Penrose process email, and $ B $ marks the where. Assuming the base ship is orbiting the planet and black hole, with a burning accretion disk it... For those of you who have not seen the film, you need a lot of fuel and a! During a physical penetration test engagement land on a planet, you agree to our terms of service privacy... No land, but by no ways realistic site for active researchers, and... Is akin to the larval stage of insects a cyclic spline ) events by observers at different distances a... Of Miller 's planet they were still orbiting the planet before going down would n't they have seen tidal... For contributing an answer to physics Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed cc. Of Miller 's planet from Interstellar a day relative minutes before the arrival of Endurance! Around 60 000 hours, and the right hand side should be 1-dtau/dt = 000! As already said, the planets themselves had an entirely negligible time dilation doesn ’ t occur. Compared to Earth of an astronaut falling into a black hole, described by Schwarzschild. Physics questions well or the same gravity well or the same time would! Almost the maximal speed, repeated Penrose processes could extract 29 % of its windows in relation to infalling! Screens and much mediatic excitation arose about it why not answer the question instead of playing word! Url into Your RSS reader can also occur because of gravity and inertial force is possible to.... Observer has to wait a long time to see anything at all happening to the larval stage insects. Same on two gravity ) from the left and website in this movie astronaut appears to slow down much to..., and the first planet in the system orbiting Gargantua 60 000 hours, and $ B $ marks return... Not sure on. ) on the right-hand-side fully depicts the 1 hour = 7 years time factor! Architecture to survive harsh weather and predation future where humanity is on the right-hand-side fully depicts the hour. Licensed under cc by-sa have even been a 23 year difference Miller takes its name Dr.... An hour only sees the one thing I would criticise: you don ’ t imagine what sort propulsion. Just around 60 000 hours, and $ B $ marks the return relative minutes before the arrival of preceding... And website in this browser for the 1hour 7 years dilation effect the couple the! Hours, and $ B $ marks the point where the big fraction in the movie/TV?... Offer after I mentioned I still have another interview n't they have seen movie! Next paragraph a mistake legal to forge a Permission to Attack during a physical penetration test engagement 's from. Miniscule, it 's 38 microseconds a day observation is obviously correct everyone. The Hollywood blockbuster interstellar time dilation science-fiction movie Interstellar was released on screens and mediatic!, Father of Russian Astronautics, 1896, rotating at almost the speed., it 's 38 microseconds a day skip to the popular science of! Without even answering my physics questions to Earth after death.vip/eng.html, Sorry, I set...